What is “lore”? What does it mean to know something?

There are four types of knowledge—with deep traditions and language* behind them. Sailing combines all four.

For each type of lore, this chart give a simple definition, along with: describing the contexts in which they are learned, the word root, and the alliterative term used by cognitive scientist / philosopher John Vervaeke.

Concise, simple definition Contextual description: Concrete sailing example: Ancient Greek term John Vervaeke’s 4 Ps
know-that facts, theory: what you can learn in any classroom A ketch has two masts, with main taller than mizzen episteme propositional knowledge
know-how how to do something, e.g. that learned in a studio, workshop, on-the-job tying a bowline technē procedural knowledge
know-as from being a particular occupation (e.g. sailmaker) or in a particular position (e.g. bowman) when jib is properly trimmed noesis perspectival knowledge
know-by living through an experience or situation (especially repeatedly) rounding Cape Horn, single-handed gnosis participatory knowledge

*For those who haven’t kept up with their ancient Greek provides terms, it helps to remember today’s derived terms:

Epistemology: the philosophy branch dedicated to knowledge

Technology: the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes

Noetic: of, relating to, or based on the intellect

Gnosticism: religious ideas oriented toward knowledge and understanding

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10* Notes Apparent—& Building