What is “lore”? What does it mean to know something?
There are four types of knowledge—with deep traditions and language* behind them. Sailing combines all four.
For each type of lore, this chart give a simple definition, along with: describing the contexts in which they are learned, the word root, and the alliterative term used by cognitive scientist / philosopher John Vervaeke.
|Concise, simple definition||Contextual description:||Concrete sailing example:||Ancient Greek term||John Vervaeke’s 4 Ps|
|know-that||facts, theory: what you can learn in any classroom||A ketch has two masts, with main taller than mizzen||episteme||propositional knowledge|
|know-how||how to do something, e.g. that learned in a studio, workshop, on-the-job||tying a bowline||technē||procedural knowledge|
|know-as||from being a particular occupation (e.g. sailmaker) or in a particular position (e.g. bowman)||when jib is properly trimmed||noesis||perspectival knowledge|
|know-by||living through an experience or situation (especially repeatedly)||rounding Cape Horn, single-handed||gnosis||participatory knowledge|
*For those who haven’t kept up with their ancient Greek provides terms, it helps to remember today’s derived terms:
Epistemology: the philosophy branch dedicated to knowledge
Technology: the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes
Noetic: of, relating to, or based on the intellect
Gnosticism: religious ideas oriented toward knowledge and understanding
10* Notes Apparent—& Building